Solid-State Welding


Reading Assignment

  • 32.1 Introduction to Resistance and Solid State Welding
  • 32.2 Theory of Resistance Welding
  • 32.3 Resistance Welding Processes
  • 32.4 Advantages and Limitations of Resistance Welding
  • 32.5 Solid-State Welding Processes


Introduction to Solid-State Welding

Resistance Welding

Basic Resistive Welding


Resistive Welding Temperature Distribution


Tear Test


Advantages Resistance Welding

  • Very Rapid
  • Can be fully automated
  • Conserve material – no flux, filler or shielding gases
  • Minimal distortion
  • Skill operators not required
  • Dissimilar metals can be easily joined
  • High degree of relilaility and reproducibility

Limitations of Resistance Welding

  • High initial cost for equipment
  • Thickness limitations
  • Joint design – almost exclusively lap joints
  • Access to both sides of the joint is required
  • Skilled maintenance personnel required
  • Some materials require special preparation

Resistance Welding Processes

  • Spot Welding
  • Seam Welding
  • Tube Welding
  • Projection Welding
  • Stud Welding
  • Flash Welding

Forge Welding

Cold Welding

Roll Welding (roll bonding)

Friction Welding

Inertia Welding

Stir Welding



Advantages of Friction Stir Welding

Metallurgical Benefits

  • Excellent weld quality
  • Wide range of materials
  • Solid-State process
  • Low distortion
  • High strength
  • No loss of alloy elements
  • Fine micostructure
  • No Cracking

Environmental Benefits

  • No shielding gas required
  • No surface cleaning required
  • No solvent degreasing
  • No fumes, gases, or smoke
  • Postweld finishing us often unnecessary
  • No arc glare or reflected laser beam

Energy Benefits

  • Welds produced with far less energy than other processes
  • Enable weight reduction

Ultrasonic Welding


Explosive Welding


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