Bulk Forming


Reading Assignment

  • 16.2 Classification of Deformation Processes
  • 16.3 Bulk Deformation Processes
  • 16.4 Rolling
  • 16.5 Forging
  • 16.6 Extrusion
  • 16.7 Wire, Tube and Rod Drawing
  • 16.8 Cold Forming, Cold Forging and IMpact Extrusion
  • 16.9 Piercing
  • 16.10 Other Squeezing Processes

Recommended Reading



Bulk Forming Processes

Rolling (video)

Cold Rolling (video)


Hot rolling is a process by which metal is forced between forming rolls to produce a desired profile. It is used to create rail shapes, structural steel shapes and plates. Hot rolling often follows a continuous casting operation.

At the heart of the process is the rolling mill. Some common types of rolling mills include:

Mill Types

  • Reversible Mill
  • 2 High stand www.deform.com/applications/Multi-Pass%20Rolling
  • 3 High stand
  • 4 High stand (uses backer rolls to prevent deflection)
  • Pullover Mill
  • Universal Mill – horizontal and vertical combination mill
  • (video)

Typical Hot Rolling Mill Features



Forging can be a cold or hot work process.
It involves plastically deforming a workpiece by either hammering or pressing (the distinction between these two is the rate at which the energy is applied). An advantage of forging is the highly dense metal structure, and the directional grain alignment that results from the flow of metal under extreme pressure.

Forging Types

See also:
SME Video and Study Guides for Forging


Aluminum Extrusion Plant (video)
See  www.youtube.com/watch?v=zMhVPId-pRA (Impact extrusion video)

Direct Extrusion

Indirect Extrusion

Impact Extrusion


See also scuba tank video (start at 1:07)

Wire, Rod, and Tube Drawing

Cold Forming


Other Processes

Additional Information

Aluminum Extruders Council – Extrusion Process

 Light Metal Age Magazine

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