Abrasives, grinding wheels and abrasive machining


Reading Assignment

  • 28.1 Abrasive Machining Processes
  • 28.2 Abrasives
  • 28.3 Grinding Wheel Structure and Grade
  • 28.4 Fundamentals of Broaching
  • 28.5 Grinding Machines
  • 28.6 Honing
  • 28.7 Superfinishing
  • 28.8 Free Abrasives

Recommended Reading/videos

Cutting Tool Engineering Magazine Videos:


Abrasive Machining

Abrasives may be

  • Free
  • Mounted in resin to belt or paper
  • Bonded into wheels, stones, segments, or disks
  • Wheels may be mounted on shafts

Characteristics of Abrasives

  • Hardness
  • Attrition
  • Friability

Abrasive Materials

Natural (Traditional)

  • Sandstone
  • Emery (alumina and magnetite)
  • Corundum (naturally occurring aluminum oxide)

Natural (Still used today)

  • Quartz Sand
  • Garnets
  • Diamond
    • Used to sharpen carbide and ceramic cutting tools
    • Used for truing and dressing other abrasive wheels

Artificial Abrasives

  • Aluminum Oxide
  • General Purpose
  • Widely Used
  • Silicon Carbide
  • CBN

Abrasive Geometry

Rake angle varies widely

Abrasive machining action is a combination of

  • Cutting
  • Plowing
  • Rubbing

Grinding Wheel Identification and Selection

Wheel Types

  • Peripheral Grinding Wheels
  • Face Grinding Wheels

Marking System

  • Manufacturer’s Abrasive Prefix
  • Abrasive Type (A60-M5-V)
  • Abrasive Size (A60-M5-V)
  • Grade/Hardness (A60-M5-V)
  • Structure (A60-M5-V)
  • Bond (A60-M5-V)
  • Manufacturer’s Code

Abrasive Processes

Surface Grinding
Blanchard Grinding
Cylindrical Grinding
Centerless Grinding
ID Grinding
Abrasive Flow Machining
Abrasive Waterjet Cutting
Tool Grinding
Creep-Feed Grinding

Dressing and Truing

Grinding Wheel Safety




A shop grinding tungsten carbide with a resin-bonded diamond wheel asked the Grinding Doc about the difference between two conditioning sticks purchased from two differrent suppliers. With one stick the shop can do a lot more parts between stickings.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfoJ5exCY0w (sticking a wheel)


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